They do not need a special to increase their range, although most people use Xeno Beam Capacitors for the extra damage anyways.
Xeno Rupture Beams often waste a significant amount of firepower overkilling enemies due to their insane damage per beam. They are also prone to being kited and useless against squadrons.
Xeno Rupture Beams have a very long build time, making your ship builds take weeks to complete. In comparison, Heavy Rupture Beams have a lower build time to damage ratio but still deal decent damage; players who just want to advance to the next tier should opt for them instead.